Frequently Asked Questions

What causes osteoarthritis of the knee?

Osteoarthritis of the knee usually occurs in knees that have experienced trauma, infection, or injury. A smooth,
slippery, fibrous connective tissue, called articular cartilage, acts as a protective cushion between bones. Arthritis
develops as the cartilage begins to deteriorate or is lost. As the articular cartilage is lost, the joint space between
the bones narrows. This is an early symptom of osteoarthritis of the knee and is easily seen on X-rays.


As the disease progresses, the cartilage thins, becoming grooved and fragmented. The surrounding bones react
by becoming thicker. They start to grow outward and form spurs. The synovium (a membrane that produces a thick
fluid that helps nourish the cartilage and keep it slippery) becomes inflamed and thickened. It may produce extra
fluid, often known as "water on the knee," that causes additional swelling.


Over a period of years, the joint slowly changes. In severe cases, when the articular cartilage is gone, the
thickened bone ends rub against each other and wear away. This results in a deformity of the joint. Normal activity
becomes painful and difficult.


What factors increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee?

Several factors may increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee.


There is some evidence that genetic mutations may make an individual more likely to develop osteoarthritis of the



Weight increases pressure on joints such as the knee.



The ability of cartilage to heal itself decreases as people age.



Women who are older than 50 years of age are more likely to develop osteoarthritis of the knee than men.



Previous injury to the knee, including sports injuries, can lead to osteoarthritis of the knee.


Repetitive stress injuries:

These are usually associated with certain occupations, particularly those that involve kneeling or squatting,
walking more than two miles a day, or lifting at least 55 pounds regularly. In addition, occupations such as
assembly line worker, computer keyboard operator, performing artist, shipyard or dock worker, miner, and carpet
or floor layer have shown higher incidence of osteoarthritis of the knee.


High impact sports:

Elite players in soccer, long-distance running and tennis have an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis of the


Other illnesses:

Repeated episodes of gout or septic arthritis, metabolic disorders and some congenital conditions can also
increase your risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee.


Other risk factors:

Other factors are being investigated, including the impact of vitamins C and D, poor posture or bone alignment,
poor aerobic fitness, and muscle weakness.


How is osteoarthritis of the knee diagnosed?

Osteoarthritis of the knee can be diagnosed in two ways: patient-reported symptoms, such as pain or disability, or
actual physical signs, such as the changes in the joint seen on X-rays.


In most cases, both pathology and patient-reported symptoms are present. An evaluation of osteoarthritis of the
knee includes a complete history and physical examination. The examination should cover:

> The involved limb

> The spine

> The blood and nervous system

> The joints on either side of the knee, particularly the hip joint, which can also cause knee pain

> Posture

> Posture


How is osteoarthritis of the knee treated?

Initial treatment is generally directed at pain management. Osteoarthritis of the knee pain may have different
causes, depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Thus, treatment is tailored to the individual.


A wide range of treatment options is available. You and your doctor should decide together on the course of
treatment that is right for you.


In general, treatment options fall into five major groups:


> Health and behavior modifications, such as patient education, physical therapy, exercise, weight loss, and bracing

Drug therapies, including simple pain relievers such as aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, COX-2
specific inhibitors, opiates and stronger drugs for patients who do not respond to other drugs or treatments, and
glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate

Intra-articular treatments, including corticosteroid injections or injections of hyaluronic acid

> Surgery, including arthroscopy, osteotomy, and arthroplasty (joint replacement)

> Experimental/alternative treatments such as acupuncture, magnetic pulse therapy, vitamin regimes and topical
pain relievers


What are the natural remedies for Osteoarthritis


Glucosamine hydrochloride

one of the important ingredient which repair the damaged cartilage.  The hydrochloride of glucosamine is the
purest, highest and 20% more active than sulfate form.



for better absorption of glucosamine in our body.


Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)

helps relieve the pain and soreness caused by osteoarthritis.


The three natural ingredients mentioned are now available in capsule form under the brandname OSTEOFLEX Dietary Supplement.



Recommended use:


One (1) capsule twice a day after meal or as prescribed
by your healthcare professionals.


Available in all leading drugstores nationwide.


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